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Perhaps the most astonishing thing I noted when interviewing family members of American survivors of the Ningpo plague epidemic in 1940 was the resilience they expressed. The can-do attitude reverberated from a horrific scene in then-Manchuria through the generations to a Starbucks cafe conversation over coffee.
We thank MD, HB, JW, GC, and the surviving American families who participated in our analysis of the 1940 plague attack in Ningbo, Manchuria. Our work is dedicated to all of the Chinese victims involved in the biological warfare attacks of World War II.
On October 27, 1940, members of Japanese Unit 731 conducted a live test deployment of plague-infected fleas in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, a city south of Shanghai.
The 4th Division of Unit 731 (Production), with a staff of 50 to 70 personnel, was responsible for producing cholera, anthrax, typhoid, paratyphoid, and plague. The 4th Division achieved an operational output of 300 kilograms of plague per month.
These agents were tested against live prisoners at Anda Station, which was located in Anda City, Suihua, HeilongJiang, China (131 km northwest of Harbin and 2,638 km north of Ningbo), as shown in Figure 1.
f The location of Anda Station Proving Ground, 131 km northwest of Harbin and the location of Unit 731’s main production facility.
Anda Station was a proving ground to determine optimal weapon configurations, meteorological conditions, and other parameters related to successful field deployment. At Anda Station, live Chinese prisoners were subjected to experimental infection by plague-infected fleas.
One experiment involved tying 10 to 15 prisoners to stakes and dropping up to 10 porcelain bombs from airplanes containing plague-infected fleas. At peak operations during the war, Japanese officers testified that 600 prisoners died per year during tests.
Love for the earthquake stricken people
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A new concept bookstore
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